Journal of Childhood, Education & Society <p>Journal of Childhood, Education &amp; Society is a double-blind peer review journal that accepts research and review articles in English.</p> Journal of Childhood, Education and Society en-US Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2717-638X <p><strong>Attribution:</strong> You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and&nbsp;<a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</p> <p><span id="by-more-container"></span><strong>NonCommercial:</strong> You may not use the material for <a id="commercial_purposes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">commercial purposes</a>.</p> <p><span id="nc-more-container"></span><strong>NoDerivatives: </strong>If you <a id="some_kinds_of_mods_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">remix, transform, or build upon</a>&nbsp;the material, you may not distribute the modified material.</p> <p>Author(s) must confirm that Journal of Childhood, Education &amp; Society retains all the copyrights unconditionally and indefinitely to distribute the articles published by Journal of Childhood, Education &amp; Society.</p> The acquisition of autonomy, through benevolence, of children who are victims of domestic violence <p>From its etymology bene (good) and volens (will), benevolence means desire to do well. Benevolence is not an arbitrary notion or a theoretical apprehension. It unquestionably reveals man's humanism, which must combine in its daily practice and management with his fellow human beings and even with himself. In education, benevolence is crucial in mother-child relations. We believe that a mother must be benevolent, at the same time as; a child who has received the love of his mother (or parents) can love himself. This is a prerequisite for the acquisition of independent thought. The true cement of any family unit is the mutual love of all those who are called to live together. Paradoxically, love is not the foundation of all families. Unfortunately, there are dysfunctional families in which there are various and varied forms of violence. Children from this type of environment find themselves victims of abuse with all the possible traumatic consequences. Based on this observation, it is easy to reason by deduction: if family love conditions the acquisition of autonomy and children who are victims of family violence do not benefit from it within their families, then children who are victims of family violence are at a disadvantage in acquiring autonomy, or even that they cannot be autonomous. Thus, one may wonder to bring a child victim of family violence to the acquisition of his autonomy? What tools can be used to help a traumatized child become autonomous? How to rebuild a child who has suffered family trauma with a view to his or her autonomy? This article offers the reader benevolence, not as an instruction manual or prescription to be applied, but as a transferable and impactable posture.</p> Priscelle Andeme Ngui Valandro Loïc Chalmel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 194 199 10.37291/2717638X.20212291 Policies and practices of early childhood education and care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspectives from five countries <p>The COVID-19 pandemic, which affects all areas of life, has also affected children in need of education and care. It is of great importance to develop policies that take into account the best interests of children in this process. In this review article, the policies developed for early childhood education and care during the pandemic period in five countries (Australia, Croatia, Hungary, Spain, and Turkey), how they are implemented, the problems that arose, and the solutions produced are discussed. As a result, the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that we need to focus on eliminating the educational inequalities, set policies for the welfare of children on foundations that are more realistic, rebuild teacher training, and improve the welfare of families. Priorizating the best interests of the child in the policies to be developed and building the social ecology on justice will ease overcoming the crises that will be faced.</p> Adrijana Visnjic-Jevtic Anikó Varga Nagy Gulsah Ozturk İkbal Tuba Şahin-Sak Jesús Paz-Albo Mehmet Toran Noelia Sánchez-Pérez Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 200 216 10.37291/2717638X.202122114 Learning Chinese Mandarin characters in an English-speaking country: The development of a child’s symbolic mind <p>This qualitative research explores the development of the symbolic mind in children through learning Chinese Mandarin characters. Navigated through the lens of relational developmental system metatheory and guided by Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, findings present the analysis of the developmental processes in children’s recognition of symbols and use of known symbols to make and share meaning. This study also offers an explanation of the effect of changes in the sociocultural environment on children's symbolic development. Further, cultural differences toward symbolic representation are discussed with the recommendation of focusing on recognition followed by writing when learning Chinese Mandarin characters.</p> Wenjie Wang Annabelle Black Delfin Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 87 105 10.37291/2717638X.20212276 How have after-school clubs adapted in the United Kingdom post-March lockdown? <p>After-school clubs have provided an important childcare service for parents and carers where children are provided with an environment to play once the school day has finished.&nbsp; When the United Kingdom went into lockdown in March 2020, all children’s services closed that included the childcare provision of after-school clubs.&nbsp; When they re-opened in between July and September 2020, changes had to be implemented to meet Government restrictions.&nbsp; This study from 54 respondents working in the childcare sector identified changes within four themes:&nbsp; maintain service; bubbles; play space and play behaviour.&nbsp; This has resulted in an increase hygiene measures, staffing and amount of space for individual children, however, there is a decreased in the number of children attending, the resources and activities on offer and movement within the place space.&nbsp; Although after-school childcare is still being offered, there is financial concern on their viability and sustainability as parental demand may drop which has implications in providing a unique environment where children of different ages and abilities mix.</p> Pete King Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 106 116 10.37291/2717638X.202122100 Parents’ perspective on a children’s learning <p>Contemporary curricula of early childhood education were founded on perspective of <em>playing learning child</em>.&nbsp; Although that approach leads to children’s well-being, research by Yahya (2006) has shown that parents do not want their children to learn through play, rather to focus on early and preschool education and teaching academic skills. If parents expect professionals to deliver the knowledge necessary for the development of academic skills to their children, research has been conducted on parental experience of a child’s learning. The aim of the research was to find out how parents understand their children's learning and approach to the contemporary concepts of child learning as well as children’s competence. The research was conducted in the period from November 2017 to May 2019. Parents involved in the study, documented how their children learn in a family environment, assessing their children’s competencies. Results show that parents see learning through everyday situations whereas learning was related to the academic mode (direct teaching of letters), has only appeared in one example. At the end of the research, parents participated in a group interview, discussing their expectations of the institution towards educating children. The results showed that parents expect the institution to encourage the development of a child's social knowledge and skills, while academic knowledge and skills are ranked lower.</p> Adrijana Višnjić-Jevtić Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 117 125 10.37291/2717638X.20212266 The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s mental health and wellbeing, and beyond: A scoping review <p>The major threat of COVID-19 has become a priority to education and health systems worldwide. This scoping review reports on, and analyses, the literature pertaining to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s mental health and wellbeing, and the resources needed to assist them in these difficult times. The findings of this literature review point out the impacts of the pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of children hailing from different socio-economic backgrounds, as well as the impacts on families and schools. They also highlight how lockdown, quarantine, social distancing, social media and the measures needed to prevent the spread of infection can negatively affect children’s mental health and wellbeing. Consequently, cautionary measures that minimise these impacts on children, and recommendations for policy, research and practice are discussed.</p> Jane Spiteri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 126 138 10.37291/2717638X.20212294 Defining turn taking in intervention for young children with autism: A review of the literature <p>Turn taking is a form of preverbal, dyadic, reciprocal communication that may support key areas of development, such as language and joint attention, and may serve different functions depending on each communicative partner’s intent. As such, it has been incorporated in interventions targeting various outcomes in young children with autism. However, there is inconsistency in how researchers define turn taking and explorations on how turn taking is defined across these interventions have not yet been reported in the current literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to investigate how turn taking is operationally defined based on communicative intent in the current literature on interventions for young children with autism and to explore additional intervention content to provide fuller context to how turn taking has been promoted. A search was conducted across databases to identify intervention studies for young children with autism that incorporated an embedded turn-taking component. Peer-reviewed articles were then coded based on turn-taking communicative intent, and additional intervention content was categorized. Findings across 14 studies indicate variability among turn-taking definitions both in communicative function and form. The results also reveal that turn taking has been promoted through different intervention approaches that incorporate diverse agents, settings, and methodology. Researchers and practitioners should consider specificity and clarity when defining turn taking to most optimally meet the developmental needs of young children with autism in future interventions.</p> Kwangwon Lee Ashley Staggs Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 139 153 10.37291/2717638X.202122104 In-between spaces of policy and practice: Voices from Prince Edward Island early childhood educators <p>Over the course of the past decades, the discourse, pedagogy, scope, and delivery of early learning and child care (ELCC) has undergone myriad significant changes internationally, nationally, and at local levels. Prince Edward Island (PEI), the smallest Canadian Province, has not been exempt from these transformations. By situating early childhood educators (ECEs) at the centre of ecological multilevel environments (Bronfenbrenner, 2005), this qualitative study explored how a system-wide change implemented through the Prince Edward Island Preschool Excellence Initiative (PEIPEI) has impacted and is being impacted by ECEs over time. Purposive sampling was used to invite seven early childhood educators working on provincially regulated early years centres (EYCs) to participate in individual interviews. Findings indicated that ECEs have been striving to navigate and merge the space&nbsp;in-between&nbsp;policy and practices and that after ten years, they remain in this liminal space where they continue to navigate unravelling transitions as they search for their professional identity.</p> Gabriela Arias de Sanchez Alaina L. Roach O'Keefe Bethany Robichaud Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 154 166 10.37291/2717638X.202122102 Are grandparents raising grandchildren receiving the services they need? <p>Grandparents play an important role in the upbringing of grandchildren and face increased levels of stress. Using family stress theory, the present study examined the effectiveness of service programs for grandparents raising grandchildren. Data were collected through focus group interviews and audiotaped from a sample of four custodial grandparents living in Ohio U.S.A. To better understand grandparents that are raising their grandchildren, we asked the following questions: 1) What support is needed for grandparents raising grandchildren? 2) At what stage is the support needed: beginning, middle or late stages of caregiving? 3) What are grandparent caregivers’ perceptions of service programs? The audiotape was transcribed verbatim and analyzed for themes relevant to the research questions. The findings from these questions are examined and implications discussed.</p> Karleah Harris Gifty Ashirifi Charlene Harris Jonathan Trauth Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 167 177 10.37291/2717638X.20212288 Women and children's well-being in Indian nuclear families during the COVID-19 pandemic <p>The culture of living in a nuclear family setting, a norm of modernisation, has been badly shaken by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. This hit has created many pauses and changes in women's lives who live in nuclear families with the responsibility of taking care of very young children. Despite the various discussions related to women during the pandemic, there seem to be negligible efforts to understand the lived reality of nuclear family women having the responsibility of child care. The idea of living in this type of family is based on the thinking that it provides ample opportunity to develop individual talents and lead an unrestricted life. However, it can have a very adverse effect on women and children during the pandemic due to the closure of essential support systems such as child care centres and schools. Thus, this situation has a negative effect on the lives of women, which in turn, affects their young children's lives too. This study explored the lived experiences of a purposively selected sample of six women regarding challenges to deal with an office job, domestic work, and child care during the ongoing pandemic. Data were generated by conducting the telephonic semi-structured interview and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results indicate the curtailment of freedom and choices, adverse impact on the mental and physical health of women and their children.</p> Richa Rana Ridhi Sood Sonali Bhardwaj Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Childhood, Education & Society 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 2 2 178 193 10.37291/2717638X.202122108