Diversity of assessment discourses in Swedish and Norwegian early mathematics education

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37291/2717638X.202232178

Keywords:

Early childhood education, Early mathematics, Assessment, Discourse analysis

Abstract

In many countries, including those in the Nordic region, there has been a growing trend towards measuring students’ knowledge and understanding, a trend that is evident even in early education. This article presents a discourse analysis of mathematics assessment materials intended for six-year-olds in two neighbouring countries, Sweden and Norway. Thus, the article presents an example of early assessment in two neighboring countries with similar culture and education system. The aim is to investigate the similarities and differences between the various meanings ascribed to their assessment materials, and to discuss how these assessment materials may both influence and be influenced by early mathematics education in these two countries. The results show a diversity of discourses – both between and within the assessment materials – indicating different views on students’ learning of mathematics, on when to assess, on what knowledge to assess, and on how and why to assess. Thus, even though Sweden and Norway have similar cultures and education systems, there is no consensus when it comes to when, what and how to assess the mathematical knowledge of six-year-olds.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Ackesjö, H., & Persson, S. (2019). The schoolarization of the preschool class – policy discourses and educational restructuring in Sweden. 5(2), 127-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20020317.2019.1642082

Aubrey, C., Godfrey, R., & Dahl, S. (2006). Early mathematics development and later achievement: further evidence. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 18(1), 27-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03217428

Aunio, P., & Niemivirta, M. (2010). Predicting children's mathematical performance in grade one by early numeracy. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(5), 427-435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.06.003

Björklund Boistrup, L. (2017). Assessment in mathematics education: a gatekeeping dispositive. In The disorder of mathematics education (p. 209-230). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-34006-7_13

Burkhardt, H., & Schoenfeld, A. (2018). Assessment in the service of learning: Challenges and opportunities or Plus ça Change, Plus c’est la même Chose. ZDM, 50(4), 571-585. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-018-0937-1

Claessens, A., Engel, M., & Curran, F. C. (2014). Academic content, student learning, and the persistence of preschool effects. American Educational Research Journal, 51(2), 403-434. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831213513634

Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., Pagani, L. S., Feinstein, L., Engel, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental psychology, 43(6), 1428-1446. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1428

Ertesvåg, F., & Ridar, T. (2018, 18.09.29). Åtte av ti lærere i 1. klasse: skoledagen for teoretisk for 5- og 6-åringer. https://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/i/EoMXvK/aatte-av-ti-laerere-i-1-klasse-skoledagen-for-teoretisk-for-5-og-6-aaringer

Gee, J. P. (2014a). How to do discourse analysis: a toolkit. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315819662

Gee, J. P. (2014b). An introduction to discourse analysis: theory and method. Routledge.

Gee, J. P. (2015). Discourse, small d, big D. In The international encyclopedia of language and social interaction (p. 1-5). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi016

International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. (2019). TIMSS: trends in international mathematics and science study. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. https://www.iea.nl/timss

Johansson, J.-E. (2010). Från pedagogik till ekonomi? Några kommentarer till kunskapsproduktionen i barnehagen. Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning, 3(3), 227-231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7577/nbf.293

Klette, K. (2018). Individualism and collectivism in Nordic schools: A comparative approach. In N. Witoszek & A. Midttun (Eds.), Sustainable Modernity: The Nordic Model and Beyond (p. 59-78). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315195964-4

Leder, G. C., & Forgasz, H. J. (2018). Measuring who counts : gender and mathematics assessment. ZDM Mathematics Education, 50(4), 687-697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-018-0939-z

Lundahl, C. (2017). Temainledning: Perspektiv på nationella prov [Theme introduction: Perspectives on national tests]. Utbildning och Demokrati, 26(2), 5-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48059/uod.v26i2.1078

Ministry of Church Affairs Education and Research. (1996). Læreplanverket for den 10-årige grunnskolen. (8277264119). Oslo: Nasjonalt læremiddelsenter

Ministry of Education and Research. (2008). Fra eldst til yngst. Samarbeid og samanheng mellom barnehage og skole. Veileder. Oslo

Ministry of Education and Research. (2009). Forskrift til opplæringslova, kapittel 3: individuell vurdering i grunnskolen og i vidaregåande opplæring. https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2006-06-23-724/KAPITTEL_4#KAPITTEL_4

Ministry of Education and Research. (2020). En tioårig grundskola, Dir. 2020:24. Regeringskansliet. https://www.regeringen.se/rattsliga-dokument/kommittedirektiv/2020/03/dir.-202024/

National Agency for Education. (2018). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011, reviderad 2018. Skolverket

National Agency for Education. (2019). Hitta matematiken: Nationellt kartläggningsmaterial i matematiskt tänkande i förskoleklass [Find the mathematics: National assessment material in mathematical thinking in preschool class].

Newton, P. E. (2007). Clarifying the purposes of educational assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 14(2), 149-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09695940701478321

Nortvedt, G. A. (2018). «Det er et verktøy, ikke sant, for oss» - Erfaringer fra fire gjennomføringer med kartleggingsprøver i regning 2014 - 2017. Acta Didactica Norge, 12(4), Art. 8, 22 sider. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5617/adno.6383

Nortvedt, G. A., & Buchholtz, N. (2018). Assessment in mathematics education: responding to issues regarding methodology, policy, and equity. ZDM, 50(4), 555-570. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-018-0963-z

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2013). the Curriculum for the common core subject of mathematics. https://www.udir.no/kl06/MAT1-04

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2017). Kartleggingsprøver i regning: veiledning til lærere. https://www.udir.no/eksamen-og-prover/prover/kartlegging-gs/#formal-kven

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2020). Læreplan i Matematikk 1–10 (MAT01‑05), kompetansemål og vurdering. https://www.udir.no/lk20/mat01-05/kompetansemaal-og-vurdering/kv20

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2019). What is PISA? Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/pisa/

Palm, T., Boesen, J., & Lithner, J. (2011). Mathematical Reasoning Requirements in Swedish Upper Secondary Level Assessments. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 13(3), 221-246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10986065.2011.564994

Reay, D., & Wiliam, D. (1999). 'I'll be a nothing': structure, agency and the construction of identity through assessment. British Educational Research Journal, 25(3), 343-354. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192990250305

Ryve, A. (2011). Discourse Research in Mathematics Education: A Critical Evaluation of 108 Journal Articles. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 42(2), 167-199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.42.2.0167

Räty, H., Kasanen, K., Kiiskinen, J., Nykky, M., & Atjonen, P. (2004). Childrens' notions of the malleability of their academic ability in the mother tongue and mathematics. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 48(4), 413-426. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383042000245807

Sterner, G., Wolff, U., & Helenius, O. (2019). Reasoning about representations: effects of an early math intervention. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2019.1600579

Trappes‐Lomax, H. (2004). Discourse analysis. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (p. 133-164). Blackwell Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757000.ch5

Vennberg, H., & Norqvist, M. (2018). Counting on: long term effects of an early intervention programme. PME, Umeå, Sweden.

Vidmar, M., Niklas, F., Schneider, W., & Hasselhorn, M. (2017). On-Entry Assessment of School Competencies and Academic Achievement: A Comparison between Slovenia and Germany. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 32(2), 311-331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-016-0294-9

Volante, L. (2004). Teaching to the test: what every educator and policy-maker should know. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 35,1-6.

Winther Jørgensen, M., & Phillips, L. (2000). Diskursanalys som teori och metod (Vol. Discourse analysis as theory and method). Studentlitteratur.

Wrigley, T. (2010). The testing regime of childhood: up against the wall. In D. Kassem, L. Murphy, & E. Taylor (Eds.), Key issues in childhood and youth studies: critical issues (p. 136-148). Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203864982-24

Zohar, A., & Gershikov, A. (2008). Gender and performance in mathematical tasks: does the context make a difference? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 6(4), 677-693. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-007-9086-7

Downloads

Published

2022-07-19

How to Cite

Walla, M. (2022). Diversity of assessment discourses in Swedish and Norwegian early mathematics education. Journal of Childhood, Education & Society, 3(2), 98–111. https://doi.org/10.37291/2717638X.202232178